Geosites of Ithaca

41.  Monoliths of Anogi

The impressive “menir” or monoliths of Anogi, constitute impressive isolated boulders of Upper Cretaceous (100.5-66.0My) limestones of the Ionian zone. They constitute one of the most important attractions of the island. They have been incorrectly considered as prehistoric megalithic monuments; however, their origin is purely geological and not anthropogenic (from rock or stone carving). Their striking shape, however, attracted the interest of the locals who have given names to the boulders based on their shape. Thus, the largest and most impressive boulder has been named "Araklis" after the ancient hero (Hercules).

42. Cave of Nymphs or Marmarospilia

The geosite cave of the Nymphs is located west of the capital of Ithaca, Vathi, at an altitude of 190 m above the bay of Dexa. The Cave of the Nymphs develops in white fine-grained limestones of the U. Jurassic-L.Cretaceous (163.5-100.5 My). The excavations at the Nymph cave revealed archaeological findings dating from Hellenistic and Roman times.

43. Marmakas

The beach of Marmaka, located north of the port of Frikes village, is a geosite where we can observe the outcrops of three lithological sequences, three different formations of the Ionian zone. Specifically, we observe the limestones of the U. Triassic (230-201 My) – M. Lias (190-183 My)"Pantocrator" formation, the U. Lias (182.7-174.1 My) Ammonitico Rosso formation and finally the Dogger (174.1-163.5My) limestones with cherts and shales. Also, behind the beach there is a small coastal swamp which is the only wetland on the island.

44. Afales

Afales is the large gulf located in the northwestern part of Ithaca. At Afales beach we have the opportunity to observe a large outcrop of the Paleocene-Eocene (66.0-33.9 My)limestones which come in contact with the thick U. Cretaceous (100.5-66.0 My) limestones, as well as with the Oligocene - M. Miocene (33.9-11.63 My)flysch formation (alternation of sands and clay layers) of the Ionian zone.

45. Rizes Cave

The RizesCave is located close to Perachori village, in the southeastern part of Ithaca, close to Anemodouri, where a path begins and takes us to the cave. It is a relatively small but impressive doline which develops in white thin-bedded U. Jurassic-L. Cretaceous (163.5-100.5 My)limestones. On the side of the roof there is a large opening from which bright light enters. In this cave we can distinguish also karstification forms.

46.  Vathi

Along the Gulf of Molos in Ithaca(bay of Dexa, Skinos and Vathi)almost the entire series of the lithological sequence of the Ionian zone, as it appears on the island, is presented. The intense geomorphology of the Gulf of Molos is mainly due to the eustatic movements that took place during the last 2.5 My when successive alternations of glacial and interglacial periods were observed.The result of these eustatic movements is the formationof thischaracteristic coastal landscape, consisting of valleys of the "fjord" type.

47. Gidaki

Across the beaches, Gidaki, Filiatro, and Sarakiniko, almost the entire sequences of the lithological formations of the Ionian zone that occur on the island of Ithaca are represented. Initially, at Gidaki beach a very good exposure of U. Jurassic - L. Cretaceous (163.5-100.5 My) limestones can be observed where we also find a large and impressive anticline.

48. Filiatro

Across the beaches Gidaki, Filiatro and Sarakiniko, almost the entire sequences of the lithological formations of the Ionian zone that occur on the island of Ithaca are represented. AtFiliatrobeach the exposed sequence consists of U. Jurassic - L. Cretaceous (163.5-100.5 My) limestones, and also of the younger Senonian (U.Cretaceous (100 .5-66 My)limestones.

49. Sarakiniko

Across the beaches Gidaki, Filiatro and Sarakiniko, almost the entire sequences of the lithological formations of the Ionian zone that occur on the island of Ithaca are represented. At Sarakiniko where the sequence of rocks, beginning from the oldest one, the U. Triassic (230-201 My) - M Lias (190-183 My) "Pantocrator Limestone", followed by the U. Lias (182.7-174.1 My) Ammonitico Rosso formation. Subsequently, limestones of Dogger age (174.1-163.5 My)are found. The sequence ends with the appearance of U. Jurassic - L. Cretaceous (163.5-100.5 My)limestones of the Vigla formation followed by brecciated limestones of U. Cretaceous age (100.5-66 My).

50. Polis cave (or Loizos Cave)

The coastal cave of Loizos is located on the island of Ithaca and specifically in the bay of Polis near Stavros. The roof of the cave collapsed due to an earthquake in antiquity. The excavations by the British School of Archaeology at Athens in the 1930s have uncovered findings dating from the Bronze Age to Roman times. Those findings that stand out are fragments of bronze geometric tripods-cauldrons of the geometric period (9th-8th century BC) as well as a fragment of a terracotta mask of the 2nd century BC with an inscription mentioning the name of Odysseus.